As we are enginnering graduates it must be essential to know about the technology right NOW!!!!!!!!


            Bluetooth is a method for data communication that uses short-range radio links to replace cables between computers and their connected units. Bluetooth is a radio frequency technology utilizing the unlicensed 2.5GHz industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) band. Bluetooth is an open standard for wireless connectivity with supporters mostly from the PC and cell phone industries. Not surprisingly, its primary market is for data and voice transfer between communication devices and L.M.Ericson of Sweden invented PCs. Bluetooth in 1994. The standard is named after Harald Blaatand"Bluetooth"2nd,king of Denmark.
Bluetooth attempts to provide significant advantages over other data transfer technologies such as IrDA and HomeRF. IrDA is already popular in PC to peripherals,but is severely limited by the short connection distance of 1m and the line of sight requirement for communication. Due to its RF nature bluetooth is not subjected to such limitations. In addition to wireless device connections up to 10-100m, devices need not be within line of sight. Also it is designed to be low cost i.e under $10/unit. 


The Three-in-one Phone:
With Bluetooth support, one handset will be able to provide multiple functionality. When
at home, the phone functions as a cordless phone, connected to the fixed line. When on
the move, it functions as a mobile phone connected to the mobile network. Additionally,
when the phone comes within range of another mobile phone with built-in Bluetooth
technology, it functions as a walkie-talkie.

The Internet Bridge:
An extension of this model could be a mobile computer that allows surfing the Internet
irrespective of the location of the user, and regardless of whether the user is cordlessly
connected through a mobile phone (cellular) or through a wireline connection (e.g.
The Automatic Synchronizer
The Bluetooth technology will also allow automatic synchronization of the desktop,
mobile computer, PDAs and the mobile phone. For instance, as soon as one enters
his/her office the address list and calendar in the PDA will automatically be updated to
agree with the one in the desktop, or vice versa.

The Interactive Conference
In meetings and conferences, one can transfer selected documents instantly with
selected participants, and exchange electronic business cards automatically, without any
wired connections.
In another similar application, one can access one’s PDA to send the presentation to the
electronic whiteboard. The minutes of the meeting are also recorded on a PDA and
wirelessly transferred to other participants before they leave the meeting.
Automatic Check-in
The Bluetooth enabled mobile phone or the PDA can present the electronic ticket to the
airline system without one having to go through the queue at the check-in counters.
The airline's on-line system performs the identification via the ID-tag feature built into
the mobile phone or the PDA and confirms the reserved seat.
In the airport waiting lounge, kiosks could be equipped with Bluetooth-enabled Internet
ports. Via these ports, one could connect the Bluetooth-enabled laptops, PDAs, and
other devices to access the office or home-based servers via the airline server. The
airlines may also provide free Internet voice call using voice-over IP.

The main drawback of Bluetooth is its limited connection distance and less transmission speeds. It supports data rates up to 780kb/s which may be used for unidirectional data transfer. It is perfectly adequate for file transfer and printing applications.
With its relatively low implementation costs, Bluetooth technology seems destined to dominate the electronic landscape, as humans worldwide will be able to form personal area networks with devices and completely simplify the way in which they interact with electronic tools and each other.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
In the years to come, Bluetooth will become a worldwide connectivity among electronic devices, leading to applications unthinkable by today’s technological standards. Because the radio frequency used is globally available, Bluetooth can offer fast and secure connectivity all over the world. 



When it comes to the design of fans there hasn’t been much innovation or change for a long time. An electric motor turns some blades which then produces a flow of air. The design is simple, yet effective, and we use such fans in everything from keeping our PC components cool to keeping ourselves cool on a hot summer day.

The fan is called the Dyson Air Multiplier and resembles the design of a magnifying glass. In the base is an brushless electric motor which pushes air upwards into the loop where it is amplified 15 times. The air seeps out of the ring and is actually an extension of the AirBlade technology the company developed for its hand dryers a few years ago.

In terms of throughput the Air Multiplier can generate 405 litres of air a second, but is also highly adjustable allowing you to get just the right level of air flow unlike standard fans that usually just have a few preset speeds. The other big advantages are it is much safer due to a lack of fast moving blades and is much easier to keep clean. Noise levels are also thought to be minimal when compared to standard fan designs.

SixthSense is a wearable gestural interface device that augments the physical world with digital information and lets people use natural hand gestures to interact with that information. It was developed by Pranav Mistry, a PhD student in the Fluid Interfaces Group at the MIT Media Lab.
The SixthSense prototype is composed of a pocket projector, a mirror and a camera. The hardware components are coupled in a pendant-like mobile wearable device. Both the projector and the camera are connected to the mobile computing device in the user’s pocket. The device projects visual information, enabling surfaces, walls and physical objects around the wearer to be used as interfaces; while the camera recognizes and tracks the user's hand gestures and physical objects using computer-vision based techniques. The software program processes the video stream data captured by the camera and tracks the locations of the colored markers (visual tracking fiducials) at the tip of the user’s fingers using simple computer-vision techniques. The movements and arrangements of these fiducials are interpreted into gestures that act as interaction instructions for the projected application interfaces. The maximum number of tracked fingers is only constrained by the number of unique fiducials, thus Sixth Sense also supports multi-touch and multi-user interaction.
The Sixth Sense prototype implements several applications that demonstrate the usefulness, viability and flexibility of the system. The map application lets the user navigate a map displayed on a nearby surface using hand gestures, similar to gestures supported by multi-touch based systems, letting the user zoom in, zoom out or pan using intuitive hand movements. The drawing application lets the user draw on any surface by tracking the fingertip movements of the user’s index finger. Sixth Sense also recognizes user’s freehand gestures (postures). For example, it implements a gestural camera that takes photos of the scene the user is looking at by detecting the ‘framing’ gesture. The user can stop by any surface or wall and flick through the photos he/she has taken. SixthSense also lets the user draw icons or symbols in the air using the movement of the index finger and recognizes those symbols as interaction instructions. For example, drawing a magnifying glass symbol takes the user to the map application or drawing an ‘@’ symbol lets the user check his mail. The Sixth Sense system also augments physical objects the user is interacting with by projecting more information about these objects projected on them. For example, a newspaper can show live video news or dynamic information can be provided on a regular piece of paper. The gesture of drawing a circle on the user’s wrist projects an analog watch. The current prototype system costs approximately $350 to build.


Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) (pronounced /ˈsiːmɒs/) is a technology for constructing integrated circuits. CMOS technology is used in microprocessors, microcontrollers, static RAM, and other digital logic circuits. CMOS technology is also used for a wide variety of analog circuits such as image sensors, data converters, and highly integrated transceivers for many types of communication. Frank Wanlass successfully patented CMOS in 1967 (US Patent 3,356,858).
CMOS is also sometimes referred to as complementary-symmetry metal–oxide–semiconductor (or COS-MOS). The words "complementary-symmetry" refer to the fact that the typical digital design style with CMOS uses complementary and symmetrical pairs of p-type and n-type metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) for logic functions.
Two important characteristics of CMOS devices are high noise immunity and low static power consumption. Significant power is only drawn while the transistors in the CMOS device are switching between on and off states. Consequently, CMOS devices do not produce as much waste heat as other forms of logic, for example transistor-transistor logic (TTL) or NMOS logic, which uses all n-channel devices without p-channel devices. CMOS also allows a high density of logic functions on a chip. It was primarily this reason why CMOS won the race in the eighties and became the most used technology to be implemented in VLSI chips.
The phrase "metal–oxide–semiconductor" is a reference to the physical structure of certain field-effect transistors, having a metal gate electrode placed on top of an oxide insulator, which in turn is on top of a semiconductor material. Aluminum was once used but now the material is polysilicon. Other metal gates have made a comeback with the advent of high-k dielectric materials in the CMOS process, as announced by IBM and Intel for the 45 nanometer node and beyond

How to Build Your Own Solar Cell

"Cycles of energy and materials have existed on the Earth for billions of years. In a few hundred years, we have come to dominate and control many of these cycles. Our search for artificial photosynthesis is, therefore, not merely to present ourselves with alternatives for powering our society, but it is a search for our place in the Earth's biosphere."
Step 1 - Stain the Titanium Dioxide with the Natural Dye: Stain the white side of a glass plate which has been coated with titanium dioxide (TiO). This glass has been previously coated with a transparent conductive layer (SnO), as well as a porous TiO film. Crush fresh (or frozen) blackberries, raspberries, pomegranate seeds, or red Hibiscus tea in a tablespoon of water. Soak the film for 5 minutes in this liquid to stain the film to a deep red-purple color. If both sides of the film are not uniformly stained, then put it back in the juice for 5 more minutes. Wash the film in ethanol and gently blot it dry with a tissue.
Step 2 - Coat the Counter Electrode: The solar cell needs both a positive and a negative plate to function. The positive electrode is called the counter electrode and is created from a "conductive" SnO coated glass plate. A Volt - Ohm meter can be used to check which side of the glass is conductive. When scratched with a finger nail, it is the rough side. The "non-conductive" side is marked with a "+." Use a pencil lead to apply a thin graphite (catalytic carbon) layer to the conductive side of plate's surface.

Steps 3 & 4 - Add the Electrolyte and Assemble the Finished Solar Cell: The Iodide solution serves as the electrolyte in the solar cell to complete the circuit and regenerate the dye. Place the stained plate on the table so that the film side is up and place one or two drops of the iodide/iodine electrolyte solution on the stained portion of the film. Then place the counter electrode on top of the stained film so that the conductive side of the counter electrode is on top of the film. Offset the glass plates so that the edges of each plate are exposed. These will serve as the contact points for the negative and positive electrodes so that you can extract electricity and test your cell.

Use the two clips to hold the two electrodes together at the corner of the plates.

The output is approximately 0.43 V and 1 mA/cm2 when the cell is illuminated in full sun through the TiO side



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